Aging by definition is a â€œcascade of robustness breakdown triggered by a decrease in systemic NAD+ biosynthesis and the resultant functional defects in susceptible organs and tissues.â€Until recently, aging was a process inherent to the life cycle, but in 2018 the World Health Organization (WHO) released the 11th edition of its International Classification of Diseases. For the first time, it added aging.Â
Indeed, classifying aging as a disease means that we can reverse age-related diseases using novel therapies. Furthermore, nutrients and their interplay with different pathways have been the main focus of new investigations. For instance, the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway regulates protein synthesis and cell growth. Also, the activated protein kinase (AMPK) senses intracellular adenosine nucleotide levels and promotes ATP generation. Furthermore, sirtuins are also a crucial part of these investigations.Â
SIRT and NAD+
Sirtuins consist of 7 different proteins dependent on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) that modulate DNA by expression and aging. In addition, sirtuins regulate a wide variety of processes including, cell proliferation, differentiation, DNA damage and stress response, genome stability, cell survival, metabolism, energy homeostasis, organ development, and aging. Therefore, these mediators are critical for the development of age-related diseases like cancer.
NAD+ is a critical mediator of energy production and promoter of cellular repair. However, several reports affirm that the intracellular levels of NAD+decrease as we hit our middle-age years. On the other hand, increasing our levels of NAD+ has resulted in better insulin sensitivity, an improvement of mitochondrial function, and lifespan extension.Â
How can we improve NAD+ production?
Vitamin B3 is crucial to synthesize NAD+, but also enhancing the enzymatic conversion of NAD+ is fundamental to increase its levels. Indeed, the inhibition of the CD38 enzyme is associated with increased levels of NAD+. Besides these actions, supplementation of NAD+ precursors such as nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) and nicotinamide riboside(NR), which are rapidly absorbed and converted into NAD+. Furthermore, an increase in NAD+ biosynthesis and robustness comes with beneficial results:
- Decreased age-related adipose tissue inflammation.
- Modulated insulin secretion and better insulin sensitivity.
- A marked improvement in neuronal function.
- An increased mitochondrial function resulting in better metabolic health and enhanced muscle mass.
Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN)
This NAD+ precursor can be found in small amounts in vegetables like cucumber, avocados, broccoli, cabbage, and edamame. Nevertheless, its conversion to NAD+ depends on rate-limiting enzymes like nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT). Furthermore, NAMPT can be found inside the cell as iNAMPT and on the outer part of the cells as eNAMPT.Â
eNAMPT has a higher enzymatic activity of these two enzymatic forms and is found in many cells like hepatocytes, adipocytes, monocytes, cardiomyocytes, and glia cells. Recent research shows that white and brown adipocytes actively secrete eNAMPT reflecting a crucial role of adipose tissue on NAD+ biosynthesis.
The increased synthesis of NAD+ is fundamental to keep intracellular levels of energy on the proper level. However, as we age, NAD+ levels start to drop, and age-related issues arise. New research has found that NMN supplementation can increase NAD+ levels, which results in better insulin secretion and sensitivity, improved mitochondrial function, and may reverse age-related issues.- Ana Paola RodrÃguez Arciniega, MS.
Shade C. (2020). The Science Behind NMN-A Stable, Reliable NAD+Activator and Anti-Aging Molecule.Â Integrative medicine (Encinitas, Calif.),Â 19(1), 12â€“14.
Imai, S., & Guarente, L. (2014). NAD+ and sirtuins in aging and disease.Â Trends in cell biology,Â 24(8), 464â€“471. doi.org/10.1016/j.tcb.2014.04.002
Additional Online Links & Resources (Available 24/7)
Online Appointments or Consultations: bit.ly/Book-Online-Appointment
Online Physical Injury / Accident Intake Form:Â bit.ly/Fill-Out-Your-Online-HistoryÂ
Online Functional Medicine Assessment:Â bit.ly/functionmed
Professional Scope of Practice *
The information herein on "Aging: A New Disease" is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional, or licensed physician, and is not medical advice. We encourage you to make your own healthcare decisions based on your research and partnership with a qualified healthcare professional.
Blog Information & Scope Discussions
Our information scope is limited to Chiropractic, musculoskeletal, physical medicines, wellness, contributing etiological viscerosomatic disturbances within clinical presentations, associated somatovisceral reflex clinical dynamics, subluxation complexes, sensitive health issues, and/or functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions.
We provide and present clinical collaboration with specialists from a wide array of disciplines. Each specialist is governed by their professional scope of practice and their jurisdiction of licensure. We use functional health & wellness protocols to treat and support care for the injuries or disorders of the musculoskeletal system.
Our videos, posts, topics, subjects, and insights cover clinical matters, issues, and topics that relate to and support, directly or indirectly, our clinical scope of practice.*
Our office has made a reasonable attempt to provide supportive citations and has identified the relevant research study or studies supporting our posts. We provide copies of supporting research studies available to regulatory boards and the public upon request.
We understand that we cover matters that require an additional explanation of how it may assist in a particular care plan or treatment protocol; therefore, to further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez DC or contact us at 915-850-0900.
We are here to help you and your family.
Dr. Alex Jimenez DC, MSACP, CCST, IFMCP*, CIFM*, ATN*
Licensed in: Texas & New Mexico*
Dr. Alex Jimenez DC, MSACP, CIFM*, IFMCP*, ATN*, CCST
My Digital Business Card